Newsworthy River Cutoffs

On December 1, 2016 · 4 Comments

Rivers can make great boundaries when they cooperate. Frequently they do not. These creatures of nature flow where they want to flow. Sometimes they erode deep furrows through solid rock, changing course only after eons pass. Other times they cross alluvial plains, shifting into multiple ephemeral streams awaiting the next flood. Problems will undoubtedly occur when people rely upon frequently-shifting rivers as boundaries. The shifts create winners and losers.

Two recent border situations came to my attention, handled in distinctly different ways by those involved.

The Red River



Reader Glenn seemed amused by the craziness of the border between Texas and its neighbors — Oklahoma and Arkansas — along the Red River, in an email he sent to 12MC a couple of months ago. The border rarely followed the river exactly, it reflected a version of the river that existed a long time ago. Many of the cutoffs on the "wrong" side of the river still retained names from a bygone day; Eagle Bend, Horseshoe Bend, Whitaker Bend and Hurricane Bend. Others seemed to represent the year of the flood that changed the underlying channel; such as 1908 Cutoff and Forty-One Cutoff.

Fixing the Border


Bend in Red River, Texas
Bend in Red River, Texas. Photo by brewbooks on Flickr (cc)

I might have left it at that, a simple observation of a messed-up situation. However, the decision to use the Red River beginning with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 continues to reverberate today. This treaty between Spain and the United States addressed a host of boundary issues. A line along the Red River remained in place when México gained independence from Spain in 1821, when Texas gained independence in 1836 and when Texas joined the United States in 1846. The river had different intentions though and meandered as it pleased.

The Red River figured prominently in a U.S. Supreme Court decision, Oklahoma v. Texas, 260 U.S. 606 (1923). The Court noted that even though the river wandered, it remained within two "cut banks" broadly defined.

… we hold that the bank intended by the treaty provision is the water-washed and relatively permanent elevation or acclivity at the outer line of the river bed which separates the bed from the adjacent upland, whether valley or hill, and serves to confine the waters within the bed and to preserve the course of the river, and that the boundary intended is on and along the bank at the average or mean level attained by the waters in the periods when they reach and wash the bank without overflowing it.

The Court set the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma on the south side of the Red River. Surveyors then marked and set the boundary.

The Current Dispute

Except the river kept changing while the boundary, as determined by the Court in 1923, remained fixed. The latest dispute began within the last several years. It got much more complicated. While the line between Texas and Oklahoma began at the south bank, the Federal government held the portion from the middle of the river to the south bank in public trust for Native Americans. This formed a narrow strip, a 116 mile (190 kilometre) ribbon. Much of that strip is now on dry land. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management estimated that 90,000 acres actually belong in the public domain, and not to the people living there, farming it or grazing their cattle for the last century. Lawsuits continue to rage.


The River Meuse


Netherlands Belgium Border Adjustment
Netherlands / Belgium Border Adjustment
Underlying Map from OpenStreetMap

Reader Jasper sent me a heads up that Belgium shrank and the Netherlands grew on November 28, 2016. The two sides came to an amicable agreement and adjusted their border. Didier Reynders of Belgium and Bert Koenders of the Netherlands signed a treaty in Amsterdam, in the presence of their respective monarchs, King Philippe and Queen Mathilde, and King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. The announcement came in a Press Release with coverage in local media (Google Translation of an article in Flemish).

The areas in question fell along the banks of the River Meuse, forming a portion of the boundary between the two nations. They established their original border there in 1843. However, these neighbors decided to straighten their common river to improve navigation in stages between 1962 and 1980. This left a piece of the Netherlands and two pieces of Belgium on the "wrong" side of the river between Visé and Eijsden (map). Police could not access these spots easily and they became havens for illegal activities. This included a situation where a headless body washed ashore on one of the exclaves. Territorial complexities hampered the investigation.

In an unusual twist and in a supreme act of neighborly cooperation, the two nations simply agreed to swap their stranded parcels. It seemed the most logical option, and yet, it remained exceedingly rare in other border situations worldwide. Nobody wants to be the loser. Belgium simply gave up 14 hectares (35 acres) in the deal and called it good.

On December 1, 2016 · 4 Comments

4 Responses to “Newsworthy River Cutoffs”

  1. Fritz Keppler says:

    In my quest to cross county lines I frequently make use of such riverbends along the Mississippi and other watercourses to traverse a line otherwise without bridge or ferry. I’m always on the lookout on maps and aerial photographs for new ones to go across, and there are a number that I have in mind to try.

  2. Jasper says:

    The whole border between the Netherlands and Belgium is a mess because when Belgium split off, nobody really wanted to fight a war, but the Dukedom of Brabant did get split into two countries (and by now into three provinces: North Brabant in the Netherlands, and Flemish and Walloon Brabant in Belgium because they of language issues).

    There are (I believe) 10 days of restless troops running around the border before the two decided to just let it kinda hang where it was, leading to the giant border mess of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau, as discussed on this blog before.

    Oddly, the heir-presumptive of Belgium is still the Duke (Duchess) of Brabant, leading to the somewhat odd situation that somehow they have noble powers in a foreign country… It gets crazier, because the King of the Netherlands has Baron of Breda – a city in North-Brabant in the Netherlands – as one of his subtitles, which would make him subject to the Duchess somehow… good thing we don’t take nobility too serious anymore.

    And while we have figured out this little dispute around the Meuse, we still have major fights what the waflle-eaters about border related issues. For instance, the Netherlands promised to keep the harbor of Antwerp accessible. Little did they realize how big that harbor would become, and keeping the access route open and deep enough is becoming a major cost. And that for the benefit of a harbor competing with Rotterdam!

    Next to that channel is the Hedwige polder, a piece of land that both countries agreed to unpolder (and hence drown) in exchange for the ever expanding Schelde channel that gives access to Antwerp. The local Zweeuwen in the Netherlands are not happy with this, and this issue has been dragging for years now (weak pun intended).

    https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertogin_Hedwigepolder
    (link sadly only in Dutch)

    And then, there is the Iron Rhine, a railroad connecting Belgium through the Netherlands. The Belgians recently decided to start using an old right to this railroad, but the Dutch have in the meantime made part of the trajectory all kinds of environmental protections. Cue more mess.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Rhine

  3. John of Sydney says:

    Here in Sydney if you examine the western boundary of the Botany Bay council and the eastern boundary of Rockdale council you see that it meanders through the middle of Sydney (Kingsford Smith) airport.
    The boundary follows the old course of the Cooks River which was diverted in the late 40’s early 50’s to expand the airport. This boundary has never had any impact on airport operation as the airport is totally under federal government control.
    This boundary has just lost its importance as the two councils were amalgamated into Bayside Council on 1 September 2016.
    The old airport layout also had the distinction of one runway being crossed by a railway line.
    On 19 June 1950 an Ansett Airways DC3 was taxiing down the runway to get to the correct runway when it collided with a steam hauled train of empty coal wagons from Bunnerong Power Station. Fortunately there were no deaths and (seemingly) no injuries. The airport was been entirely changed since then, the accident site would be in the area of the Qantas jetbase. The railway line was diverted so it is now well outside the airport.

  4. John Wood says:

    Thanks for the bit on the Red River. Being from Oklahoma, I knew about the border being on the south side, but I wasn’t aware of the strip that was public domain in the middle.

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