Smallest Multiple Time Zone Countries

Sometimes I come up with a simple question and I think I’ll get, and even want, a simple answer. Writing these Twelve Mile Circle articles is a lot easier when I’m able to come to a conclusion quickly. Then I can move on with my weekend. Other times the story gets a lot more complicated, like today. I wanted to know the smallest country with more than one time zone. Simple, right? Not so fast. Things turned convoluted very quickly.

Federated States of Micronesia

Sunset on Chuuk
Sunset on Chuuk. Photo by Matt Kieffer on Flickr (cc)

I supposed, technically, that honor should go to the Federated States of Micronesia. Its land area covered only 702 square kilometres (271 square miles) split into two time zones. For purposes of my little quest I considered land area only. Who really cared about water? Nobody lived on the water except for a few passing boats and they could follow whatever time they wanted to observe. So I looked at land area. Micronesia had the least land of any multiple time zone country.

However, this nation didn’t include any time zones crossing over land as one would observe in larger countries. FSM stretched 2,700 km (1,678 mi) across the Pacific Ocean along the Caroline Islands archipelago. Two of its states, Yap and Chuuk observed Coordinated Universal Time +10:00 (UTC+10:00). The other two, Kosrae and Pohnpei, observed UTC+11:00. Half of its hundred thousand citizens lived on Chuuk (map).

FSM seemed like a bit of an artificial creation, controlled by Portugal and then Spain until Spain’s defeat in the Spanish–American War. Spain then sold the Caroline Islands to Germany who lost them to Japan as a result of the First World War. Japan held onto the islands until its defeat in the Second World War. Then it became a United Nations Trust Territory administered by the United States. Finally the Federated State of Micronesia gained its independence in 1986 in a Compact of Free Association with the U.S.

In spite of its arbitrary origin and its crazy geographic spread, I supposed it still met the definition of the smallest nation with more than one time zone. That didn’t really leave me satisfied, though.


Cyprus. Photo by Dan Nevill on Flickr (cc)

Cyprus also seemed problematic. The nation consisted of a single land mass, an island in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Two time zones definitely existed there in a manner of speaking. However that occurred only because of Northern Cyprus.

Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960. The island included significant Greek and Turkish settlements so establishing sovereignty required skillful negotiations. This resulted in a tripartite treaty between the UK, Greece and Turkey called the Zürich and London Agreement. Then, in 1974, a military junta staged a coup intending to unite Cyprus with Greece. Turkey responded with force, invading the island and seizing about a third of it. Turkey established Northern Cyprus and evicted about two hundred thousand Greek Cypriots. The international community, with the exception of Turkey, did not and still does not recognize the sovereignty of Northern Cyprus.

Nonetheless, the Turkish army stationed in Northern Cyprus, created a de facto situation that split the island. Both sides established their capital in Nicosia (map), on separate sides of a U.N. buffer zone.

Every other nation may claim that a single government covers the entirety of Cyprus and the Cypriot flag may show a unified nation, however Turkish troops enforced a different reality. Cyprus observed time zone UTC+02:00. Northern Cyprus followed UTC+03:00, the same as Turkey. Half of the year, during the summer, they followed the same time because Cyprus observed Daylight Saving Time and Northern Cyprus did not.

Bottom line, if only a single sovereign Cyprus existed without a de facto Northern Cyprus, only one time zone would exist there.


Punta Arenas Chile. View across the city.
Punta Arenas Chile. View across the city. Photo by denisbin on Flickr (cc)

Alright, so I still wanted to find the smallest contiguous nation with more than one time zone. I didn’t want something with a bunch of far-flung islands and I didn’t want something arising out of an international dispute. Chilé seemed to be the next best solution.

I wouldn’t actually call Chilé a "small" nation. It ranked 37th in size with a land area of 743,812 square km (287,187 sq miles). Even so, one would expect something fairly large geographically to justify more than one contiguous time zone. Chilé,by the way, also had a third time zone for Easter Island although I ignored it for this purpose.

Most of Chilé, both by land and people, fell within UTC-04:00. Its southern portion, the Region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica observed UTC-03:00. This included the provinces of Última Esperanza, Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, and Antártica Chilena. Looking at the map, that made sense.

Much of Chilé followed a narrow north-south alignment along the western cost of South America. However it curved distinctly east at its southern end. There it hugged the bottom of Argentina, with a small portion even bordering the South Atlantic Ocean. Most of the people of this region lived near Punta Arenas (map), deep within that southeastern curve. It meant that a large portion of people of the Magallanes Region would be inconvenienced if they followed the same time zone as the rest of Chilé.

This actually happened fairly recently, with the Magallanes Region making the time zone switch on May 14, 2017.

Another New Visitor Roundup

My recent article on Running the Table of visitors from the United States reminded me that I haven’t provided a new visitor roundup in quite awhile. That’s where I recognize and salute an initial visitor from a country that had not previously sent a viewer to my website. It’s becoming increasingly unusual. Nonetheless I was surprised at the number of new pickups I discovered as I work towards filling every empty box on my visitor map.

Sounds Reasonable

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Several new visitors arrived through entirely logical searches. My first Swaziland visitor arrived from Mbabane and landed on the12MC’s Swaziland tag. Likewise someone from Maseru, Lesotho landed on the Lesotho tag. That’s a typical pattern. People often set-up standard feed searches to see what’s reported on their nation on the blogs. I’ve received a number of first-time national visitors in that manner.

I got my first Papua New Guinea hit on my Australian Ferry Map page. He arrived from Boroko, a neighborhood in the capital city of Port Moresby. Boroko is known for its shopping district and would be one of the more cosmopolitan areas of the nation. That certainly increases the likelihood of Internet access and potential visitors. Since that time I’ve received a veritable flood of Papua New Guinea visitors, a total of three! All of them landed on pages related to Australia, a place of close geographic proximity.

My first Solomon Islands visitor also arrived during this period, investigating Islands Below Sea Level I suppose I’d be interested in islands below sea level if I lived within the widely scattered South Pacific islands during an era of global warming. Some are volcanic and have decent altitude. Others are atolls with considerably less altitude. My logs couldn’t pinpoint the person’s exact location. However, I hope he lives on the high ground.

I’m Not Sure I See the Connection, but I’m Happy They Found Me

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I smiled when I saw my visitor from Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. That used to be one of my favorite city names long ago before I learned it’s actually pronounced something closer to Wagadugu instead of Ooga-Dooga. We can thank its French colonial heritage for the spelling. The person who stopped by my site was interested in information about Mexico for some unknown reason.

Ditto for my initial visitor from Chad. What was it about Lancaster Minnesota to Lancashire England that drew his or her interest?

How Did This Happen?

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Someone from Kolonia in the Federated States of Micronesia also paid a visit. Kolonia is the capital of FSM’s Pohnpei state, not to be confused with Colonia the capital of FSM’s Yap state. To add more to the confusion, Kolonia is on the same island as Palikir, the national capital. However that’s not what surprised me. No, with an average temperature of 26°C to 27°C (80°F to 81°F) all year long — about as close to paradise as one can imagine — what series of events caused them to land on a page about Rehoboth Beach, Delaware in Winter? Maybe they’re tired of perfection and want to try out some snow?

A visitor from Vientiane, Laos also caused me to scratch my head. Why would they care about White’s Ferry Across the Potomac River, an obscure spot even for people in the United States?

There aren’t too many more blank spots to fill on my visitor map. I don’t know how many more of these new visitor articles I’ll be able to post in the future.

Palau Checks In

Twelve Mile Circle isn’t one of those sites that uses a lot of exclamation points, but today I am bestowing that rare honor to a statement because… I got my first website hit from Palau! It wasn’t one of those phony accidental hits either. This visitor from Palau actually remained on the site for a good couple of minutes.

Yes, the Republic Palau, the island nation in the Pacific Ocean that scores so highly on several "-est" categories: one of the newest (1994) to gain independence; one of the smallest (459 square kilometres) in size; one of the fewest (20,000) in population.

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Palau maintains a Compact of Free Association with the United States, and as part of that compact relies upon the United States for economic assistance and military defense. However, Palau is fully independent and belongs to the United Nations and other international bodies. It most definitely qualifies as a new location for visitors to this website.

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The hit arrived on my doorstep from Koror, the most populated locale in Palau with about 12,000 residents. For the life of me I can’t imaging what topic would have drawn someone from Palau to the site, and that’s probably why this is the only Palauan visitor in the nearly two years I’ve been tracking aggregate statistics. Combine that with the nation’s tiny population and I consider this a rather memorable occasion and certainly worthy of an exclamation point. It doesn’t take much to excite me.

Welcome, Palau. Tell all your friends from the rest of Micronesia to stop by too.