Easiest New England

On June 17, 2015 · 12 Comments

Twelve Mile Circle has received a steady drip of visitors who seem to want to know the shortest automobile route that could be taken to touch all of the New England states. I don’t see these queries every day although they comprise a consistent two or three every month-or-so and they have been landing on 12MC for years. I don’t know if they traced back to some long-forgotten Internet trivia contest or where they originated. It’s been on my list of potential topics for a very long time and I kept telling myself that I’d have to get around to it eventually. I wasn’t feeling particularly intellectual today so I passed the time fiddling around with Google Maps instead. This became the day to answer the query.

Location of New England (red) in the United States
New England USA” by MissMJ – Own work by uploader, Image:Blank US Map.svg, Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Many 12MC readers hail from international destinations so I’ll begin with a definition of New England for their benefit. The rest of you can skip to the next paragraph. In the United States, New England consists of six states: Connecticut; Maine; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; Rhode Island and Vermont. It’s the red area marked on the map, above. New England was settled by English colonists in large numbers — thus the name — beginning with the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth in 1620 (my recent visit). Let’s move on to the real question now that everyone understands the challenge.

Shortest Distance


Oak Bluffs

I manipulated Google Maps several ways and the shortest distance that touched all six New England states came to 227 miles (365 kilometres). I’d embed the map directly within this page except that it differed from the one I created for some odd reason. That’s just one more limitation of the current version of Google Maps. Instead, I embedded a photo that I took during my recent trip to Cape Cod that looked quintessentially New England-ish and I invite the audience to open the map in a different tab to follow along.

Notice how I straightened the lines to minimize distances. I’m sure readers could find slightly shorter routes using my map as a starting point and then selecting even more obscure local roads, or perhaps by attempting something completely different. Be sure to post any solution in the comments with a link to the resulting Google Map. My solution should take about 5 hours and 6 minutes without traffic, which means that someone would have to time this journey carefully since it would involve a jaunt directly through the middle of Boston. That would work out to an anemic 45 miles per hour-or-so (72 km/hr) even under the absolute best of conditions. Could the same objective be completed faster? Of course it could.


Shortest Time



I threw the back roads out the window and focused on Interstate Highways as much as I could instead to find the quickest solution. Google Maps liked that solution better and embedded it correctly. It was longer, 253 miles (407 km), although highway speeds more than made up the difference. The route began farther north in White River Junction, Vermont (I rode a scenic train there once), followed I-89 to Manchester, New Hampshire, cut east to barely touch Maine, swung around Boston rather than drilling through it and then ran downward to Rhode Island and due west to Connecticut. This solution should clock-in at 4 hours and 1 minute during optimal conditions with a much hire average speed, about 63 mph (101 km/hr). I tried repeatedly to get it below 4 hours even though I knew it was a meaningless psychological barrier. Maybe someone else can find a quicker solution. Your challenge is to find one that’s 3 hours and 59 minutes or less. That would make me happy.

Hopefully this post will satisfy the multitude of anonymous visitors who want to know the shortest/quickest route through all six New England states, even though none of them will ever return to 12MC again. I enjoyed the mapping challenge. Maybe someday someone will attempt these solutions in the real world. It might make a nice Sunday drive.

It’s Not Always About Abe

On June 14, 2015 · 1 Comments

In the United States, twenty-three states have a Lincoln County (or Parish in the case of Louisiana). That’s nearly half. That’s also to be expected. Certainly a man who led the nation through a traumatic civil war and who died tragically at the hand of an assassin deserved to be honored with numerous place named for him. Geographic features called Lincoln spread far-and-wide. It even took root in the Wild West in places like Lincoln County, New Mexico (map) and by extension to the name of a war — the "Lincoln County War" (more of a feud actually) — involving unlikely characters such as Billy the Kid. However some counties of Lincoln weren’t what they seemed on the surface. Some of them weren’t named for Abraham Lincoln at all.

Several southern states had Lincoln Counties. One might be tempted to conclude that each of them established a county named for their former foe as a sign of reconciliation during the Reconstruction Era. That wasn’t the case. Those Lincoln Counties predated the term of President Lincoln by decades: North Carolina (1779); Kentucky (1780); Georgia (1796); and Tennessee (1809). That was also true for one border state, Missouri (1818).

General Benjamin Lincoln-restored.jpg
General Benjamin Lincoln-restored” by Charles Willson PealeFile:Benjamin lincoln by charles wilson peale.jpg.
Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

They were all named for Benjamin Lincoln (1733-1810). One would be excused for not being familiar with Benjamin Lincoln, so completely overshadowed by Abraham Lincoln. It was unfortunate that someone who contributed to the birth of a nation languished in obscurity at least in part because of the unlikely chance that someone else with the same surname became an icon of history. The reflex action in the United States was to think of Abraham automatically upon hearing the single word Lincoln. Sorry Benjamin. He and Abe weren’t even related.


181 North Street
181 North Street by Timothy Valentine, on Flickr (cc)

Benjamin Lincoln already had a promising career in the years leading up to the American Revolution. He lived in Hingham, Massachusetts where he held various minor political offices and participated in local militias. He found himself overseeing supplies and operations for Massachusetts militias as the Revolution broke out and then helped to supply the new Continental Army. Later he became a Major General and led troops in several battles. As George Washington’s second in command at the Battle of Yorktown, he formally accepted the British surrender. He became the first Secretary of War under the new U.S. government formed by the Articles of Confederation and then later served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. Clearly he earned a level of credibility significant enough to get a few counties in growing states named in his honor.

Abraham Lincoln’s home became a national historic site. In fact, numerous places associated with Abe became parks and monuments, drawing visitors from around the world. That wasn’t the case with Benjamin although his old home still stands in Hingham (map). It didn’t become a park, it remained a private residence. Amazingly, it continues to be owned by the same family, having been passed down through successive generations since Thomas Lincoln settled there in the 1630’s. Its nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places noted (1972) that "The house is furnished with the original Lincoln furniture and contains many of the General’s personal items."


Another Lincoln


Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral by Brian, on Flickr (cc)

This might be about the time that 12MC readers in the United Kingdom start wondering about the Lincoln in England’s East Midlands, the county town of Lincolnshire. That city had an impact on a couple of U.S. counties too, one directly and another indirectly. Lincoln County, Maine originated in 1760. It commemorated the birthplace of Thomas Pownall, governor of Massachusetts — Maine was part of Massachusetts at the time. Lincoln County, South Dakota was established in 1867. That would seem to make it a perfect candidate for a connection to Abraham Lincoln who died only a couple of years earlier. However it was actually named for Lincoln County, Maine, which is where W.W. Brookings, a member of the territorial legislature was born. How odd that both counties were named for birthplaces.

I’d still venture to guess that the then-recent death of Abraham Lincoln had at least a subtle influence on the name of Lincoln County, South Dakota.

Islands and Cape, Part 4 (Random Thoughts)

On May 31, 2015 · 0 Comments

There were numerous other happenings from my recent Cape Cod and Islands adventure that didn’t fit within larger themes. Some of them were unusual. Others simply cataloged additions to my various lists. Still others, well, I’m not sure why I felt they were noteworthy except that they caught my attention for some inexplicable reason. My thanks go out to the Twelve Mile Circle audience for indulging me on this latest travelogue. This is the last installment. We will return to geo-oddity goodness soon.

What the Fox?



Provincetown Fox

I am a terrible photographer. Even so, this blurry monstrosity was even worse than my usual sad fare. I broke a cardinal rule: just take the picture and only then try to get a better one. I was walking down Bradford Street (map) — one of the major roads through Provincetown — very early one fine morning on the way back from seeing the Wood End Lighthouse. I got a strange feeling that someone or something was watching me. I turned to the side and, directly across the street from me, stood a fox with a squirrel in its mouth. We stared at each other for maybe ten seconds while I slowly pulled a phone from my pocket to take a photo. I should have hit the shutter at the first opportunity. Instead I tried to neatly center the image, zoom in and get a perfect shot. Naturally the critter started walking as I set the shot, leaving me desperately clicking as fast as I could, capturing a blurry fox with squirrel. You’d think I’d learn.


Ferry, Ferry Quite Contrary

I like ferries. Longtime 12MC readers already know that. This particular trip offered multiple opportunities.



The Chappy Ferry on Martha’s Vineyard was particularly memorable because it was an unusual example of a ferry requiring another ferry. First people needed to get to Martha’s Vineyard on a ferry then those wishing to travel onward to Chappaquiddick Island needed to take a second ferry(¹), the Chappy Ferry’s "On Time III" boat (map). Also notable was its duration, all of maybe 30 seconds. In fact, my YouTube video showed pretty much the compete route in its entirety. One had to appreciate the simplicity of the solution, going back-and-forth all day long carrying three cars at a time across a narrow channel. It was more romantic than a bridge, I supposed.

We took two other ferries during our adventure, both departing Hyannis on the mainland using Hy-Line Cruises. One involved a round-trip to Nantucket and the other a round-trip to Oak Bluffs on Martha’s Vineyard(²). We chose Hy-Line because it made visiting both islands on back-to-back overnight stays a little easier. We didn’t have to worry about getting to different mainland ports. I admit that it was a bit of an odd scheme contrived solely so that I could add to my county counting list. Nantucket was it’s own eponymous county. Martha’s Vineyard plus a few nearby islands formed Dukes County. I felt I had capture both counties on this trip because I wasn’t sure when I might be back that way again.


Cape Cod Beer
Hyannis Harbor

That created a minor time dilemma. We disembarked at Hyannis after the Nantucket round-trip and then had four hours to kill before catching the ferry to Martha’s Vineyard. We ate lunch at the harbor. OK, we still had three hours. Fortunately the Cape Cod Beer brewery was a short drive away. Problem solved.

I noticed a Cape Cod Beer truck loading the Martha’s Vineyard ferry when we returned. I really liked the photo. I should probably send a copy to the brewery.


Beer Me


Cisco Brewers
Cisco Brewers

I’ll stick with the brewery theme for just a moment. I also count breweries and brewpubs I’ve visited. The total now stands north of 300. We didn’t add as many breweries as we’ve done on some other trips although we did visit a respectable five. In addition to Cape Cod Beer we stopped at Cisco Brewers on Nantucket, Mayflower Brewing Company in Plymouth, Offshore Ale Co. on Martha’s Vineyard and Coddington Brewing Company, in Rhode Island. Not bad.

I have a few stories that I’ll gladly share in person over a pint someday.


12MC Sees Geo Everywhere


Foggy Morning on Nantucket
Nantucket Water Meter

Maps always seemed to be on my mind even when I’m supposed to be relaxing on vacation. The only greater significance of that statement related to my unnatural interest in Nantucket water meters. They featured maps of the island. It took me awhile to fine one worth photographing. Let’s just say it became an obsession and move along to another topic.


My Digital Fingerprints


Google Analytics Nantucket / Martha's Vineyard
That Was Me

I’ve also never missed an opportunity to scour Google Analytics for unusual 12MC readership trends. My real-world adventures created the pattern on this image! That happened as a result of my back-to-back trips to Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard. I pinged the site from Nantucket in the morning and Martha’s Vineyard in the afternoon. That was the first time 12MC ever received hits from both of those islands on the same day. I’m easily amused.

And let me digress back to County Counting while I’m thinking about it. I also captured the final two counties in Rhode Island that I’d never visited previously. Newport County was a great capture. We stayed overnight in Newport and that counted extra in my mental categorization. Plus it was my first overnight trip ever to the state of Rhode Island so that made it doubly special. Bristol County was a lesser capture. I merely crossed the border then did a U-turn, traversing Bristol for probably less than a minute. It still counted! Now Rhode Island could be listed as completed on my scorecard along with Delaware, Maryland and Connecticut (a.k.a. "easy ones"). I know, Rhode Island doesn’t technically have self-governing counties anymore. I still count them.


Urban Exploration


Fort Revere Park
Fort Revere Park

Most people probably visited the ruins of old Fort Revere in Hull (map) to see the fortifications themselves. I did that too. That was great. I also enjoyed walking through the underground tunnels within the fort to view graffiti. My wife rolled her eyes. I’m used to it.


Islands and Cape articles:


(¹) I suppose one could also fly to Martha’s Vineyard although I still preferred the double-ferry option.
(²) The triangular route beginning at Hyannis which included a direct link between Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard would have been more efficient. Unfortunately that option only operates during summer months and wasn’t available during my trip.

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12 Mile Circle:
An Appreciation of Unusual Places
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