I spotted South Street in Manly, Iowa as I wrote Even More Manly Places. Ordinarily that wouldn’t generate much attention. For some reason I found it entertaining to see a South with an east and a west. One could go to East South or West South, although apparently nowhere southeast or southwest. Ditto for North Street, and a similar situation for East Street. Oddly, Manly didn’t seem to have a West Street. I’ve run into similar situations like this in plenty of other places and I always smile. I don’t know why I fixated on it more than usual this time.
I’m sure the street names all came from their geographic alignment throughout town. However, each of those could be surnames too, theoretically although not likely. I went completely down a tangent and started thinking about that possibility anyway, way too much.
Fortunately the United States Census Bureau published a file that offered hours, well minutes, of entertainment. Doesn’t everybody love leafing through a table of Frequently Occurring Surnames from the 2010 Census? Then I checked the etymology of directional surnames. They all seemed to relate to ancestors who lived in a particular direction away from a larger town or region. People named West lived to the west. You get the picture.
Frequency variations definitely existed.
West seemed particularly popular. It ranked as the 125th most frequent surname in the U.S., with nearly two hundred thousand instances. Variations trailed from there. Westerman ranked 6,620, Westman ranked 11,257 and Western ranked 11,395.
Next in popularity, and much farther down the list came North. It ranked 1,766th, with about twenty thousand people. Northern ranked 8,981.
East followed in 2,843rd place with about twelve thousand people. However the variation Eastman actually scored higher, ranking 2,162. Easterly trailed with a rank of 12,593
South fell at the back of the pack at 3,231, and eleven thousand people. Southern ranked 4,587 and Southward ranked at 23,120. Southward presented a bit of an anomaly. Every other directional surname aligned almost exactly with people who identified as white. By contrast, about a third of the people named Southward identified as African-American.
Then I hoped to find a place for each direction, named for an actual person with that surname rather than its geographic position. I already discussed the wonderful North, South Carolina in North AND South so I set north aside. I didn’t find a South anywhere, although that didn’t surprise me given the frequency of the surname. That left West and East.
I created a little game around the West surname a few years ago. That reflected its overall popularity. This time I searched for an actual West and I found it in Texas. The name could be confusing. West, Texas (the city) was not the same at West Texas (the region). In fact West, along Interstate 35 between Dallas/Ft. Worth and Waco, probably fell a little bit to the east of the West Texas region by most interpretations. Everyone seemed to have a different definition of West Texas. That didn’t help.
The Katy Railroad was laid between Hillsboro and Waco in the fall of 1881. The path of the railroad cut through land owned by Thomas West. Czech immigrants came to the area purchasing the rich lands to farm and start a fresh life in the new world. They also opened businesses sharing their European culture. By the 1890’s the Czech businesses flourished in West.
That legacy of Czech immigration still existed in West. Businesses such as the Czech Stop and Little Czech Bakery (map) combined both cultures and offered kolaches and barbecue. Kolaches, I learned, were a type of fruit pastry brought to the area by those immigrants. Residents also emphasized their cultural heritage each Labor Day with a Czech polka festival called Westfest.
I couldn’t find a town of East, however I remembered a town on Maryland’s eastern shore called Easton. Unfortunately the name derived from its position east of St. Michaels. Oh well.
Other Eastons existed. Maybe that offered hope. I pulled a few threads on the history of Easton, Pennsylvania (map) and I found an intriguing if convoluted story. Thomas Penn, son of William Penn who founded Pennsylvania, married Juliana Fermor in 1751. The next year a growing town in Pennsylvania needed a name so Penn suggested Easton. Fermor grew up on an estate owned by her father, the 1st Earl of Pomfret, called Easton Neston in Northampton, England (map). The newly established town in Pennsylvania became Easton, in the newly established county of Northampton. That worked out nicely. Problem solved.
However it created another mystery in my mind. Easton Neston seemed to be a rather unusual name for an estate. Actually, it simply borrowed the name from a local church parish, which in turn borrowed the name from a town that existed there for more than a millennium. The town faded away over time although the parish remained, as did the estate. The only reference to its etymology seemed unreliable although I’ll still provide it: "Easton Neston in Northamptonshire gets its name from Old English Eadstanestun ‘settlement of Eadstan’, a personal name composed of the elements ead ‘prosperity’, ‘riches’ + stan ‘stone’."
The recent Manly Places dealt with U.S. locations that swung wildly towards an overabundance of men. Naturally I also wanted to examine the opposite condition. The inverse of manly seemed as if it should be something like ladylike so that’s what I called the followup article. This one required more effort. Women lived longer than men naturally and the ratios reflected that. Fluctuations didn’t hit the same extremes either.
Women did seem to congregate in larger numbers in major northeastern cities, such as Boston, New York and Washington: "Nine of the 10 metros with the highest ratio of women to men are in the East: Oakland is the only exception." However, fluctuations occurred even within those metropolitan areas. The most women in New York City could be found in the 10021 ZIP Code. In the suburbs of Washington, DC, in Bethesda-Rockville-Frederick, Maryland specifically, 1.2 women lived alone for every man in a similar situation.
I found some bad news and some good news about women and prisons. Incarcerated women skewed the populations of lightly populated rural counties and towns just like their male counterparts. However, at least within the Federal Bureau of Prisons, women accounted for only 7% of the inmates. Still, where women’s prisons existed, anomalies could occur. No county had a greater imbalance than Summers County, West Virginia, the home of Federal Prison Camp Alderson. This minimum security facility housed nearly a thousand women (map). That created an imbalance in Summers County of 1.23 women to every man.
Some well-known criminals served time there, too. I remembered Lynette Fromme mostly because of her nickname, "Squeaky." She became a follower of Charles Manson and later tried to assassinate President Gerald Ford. Her sentence could have kept her confined for the remainder of her life although she earned parole in 2009 after serving 34 years. She spent many of her years at Alderson, helping to skew the population ratio of Summers County except for the couple of days in 1987 when she escaped briefly.
Things really got wacky at the town level. The greatest imbalance occurred in tiny Raoul, Georgia, population 2,500. Four out of five residents were women. There, the Lee Arrendale State Prison of the Georgia Department of Corrections created the anomaly. The largest town on the list of Top 100 cities with the most women, Chowchilla, California made space for two prisons for women. However one of them, Valley State Prison, became a men’s facility in 2012. It will likely drop from the list after the next Census.
My intuition failed me once again. I figured colleges and universities would skew ratios more than prisons. I didn’t get things completely wrong, though. One of the largest towns to crack the Top 100 list reflected that category. Mount Holyoke College fell within the boundaries of South Hadley, Massachusetts (map). This institution dated to 1837, beginning as the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. It’s 2,500 students comprised a sizable chunk of the town’s population of 17,000; enough to contribute mightily to a favorable ratio of women to men.
A lot of colleges for women either closed or became coeducational institutions as the Twentieth century progressed. About sixty still remained in the United States. That limited the number of chances to dramatically impact populations.
I looked a little beyond the United States this time. Sort of. Wikipedia had a nice list of countries by sex ratio that I consulted. After I sorted the list it showed that the Northern Mariana Islands had the greatest abundance of women. It contained about 1.4 women for every man. Of course the Northern Mariana Islands actually belonged to the United States in a commonwealth arrangement (map), even though it appeared separately on the list.
This anomaly occurred because of legal loopholes and deplorable exploitation of female garment workers brought to the islands primarily from China. The Northern Marianas fell within something of a gray area. Products coming from there could claim that they were "Made in the USA" and avoid tariffs. However, a lot of wage and fair labor laws applicable on the mainland United States did not apply to them. A large garment industry started operating in the Northern Marianas around 1984 to take advantage of the situation. That’s why women so outnumbered men. They toiled in factories twelve or more hours a day without breaks for poverty wages. Once exposed, the U.S. Congress began to pass laws that eventually restricted the loopholes. The last of the factories closed in 2012 and the population of Saipan dropped by nearly a third.
Estonia may top the list after the next Census takes place in the Northern Marianas. I examined the ratios within Estonia by different age categories. It seemed after a quick glance that Estonian men simply began to die in droves once they hit their 60’s.
I didn’t realize the earlier Manly Places would get much of a reaction. Actually the title did suggest an element of foreshadowing. Everyone in the Twelve Mile Circle audience who thought it should have featured places named Manly, go ahead and take a bow. I intended to link the previous article to this one all along. As often happens however, a couple of savvy readers noticed it before I could write the second part. I figured I might as well start with their suggestions as I took a closer look.
Ross Finlayson figured it might involve Manly Beach (map), a few kilometres northeast of Sydney, Australia. That’s where my mind went originally, too! I’d never been to Manly Beach although I visited Sydney a number of years ago and I guess the name must have lodged in my memory from that time. I kept thinking about frequent 12MC commentator "John of Sydney" as I wrote this, too. I bet he’d have some good insight.
Manly Beach hugged the eastern side of the town of Manly and featured some of the best surfing in Australia. Ordinarily I might consider that idle boasting, a little something that every seaside spot along the continent probably claimed. However, Manly’s boast probably mattered more than most. It hosted the Australian Open of Surfing each year. It was also quite accessible. Someone could hop on a ferry at Sydney’s Circular Quay and hit the surf in about a half-hour. From the photo I found online, it looked like it could get quite crowded during the summer though, in this instance during early February.
Apparently the name came from the manly indigenous inhabitants of the area. Captain Arthur Phillip bestowed the title upon this place during his early efforts to colonize Australia in the late Eighteenth century. Allegedly he said, "their confidence and manly behaviour made me give the name of Manly Cove to this place."
Then reader "zxo" seemed a bit melancholy that I’d not given Manly, Iowa its proper due (map). I’d never heard of this particular Manly although it seemed like a fine suggestion. The place flowed from a surname. How many times have we seen towns in the Midwestern U.S. that were named because of railroads? Add this one to the list too. The City of Manly explained that,
In 1877, the Burlington/Cedar Rapids & Northern Railroad (BCR&N) joined the Central of Iowa track with its own track from Plymouth Junction. The site was named Manly Junction after Central of Iowa’s freight agent, J.C. Manly. On October 18, 1898, Manly Junction was incorporated as the Town of Manly, and then in August of 1973, the Town of Manly officially became the "City of Manly" under the State of Iowa’s Home Rule Act.
J.C. Manly probably never did anything else of historical note during his/her life. Nonetheless, if one worked for a railroad in the United States during the Nineteenth century there was a good chance hat a town would be named accordingly. America Fun Fact of the Day said Manly, Iowa Is a Gloriously Named American City in an entertaining if profanity-laden article.
I then examined the surname Manly. A lot of those sketchy heraldry website that try to sell questionable family crests included it. The gist seemed to be that there might be two separate etymologies. One offshoot focused on places named Manly in England. Those derived from Old English words meaning shared woodlands or glades. Others with the name probably derived from the Middle English word mannly, meaning, well, manly.
I should also note that many people on the Intertubes found the geographic proximity between Manly and Fertile quite amusing.
Norman Manley International Airport, Jamaica
One more place probably deserved a mention. Norman Manley International Airport served Kingston, Jamaica (map). A variation of the Manly surname included that extra "e" Maybe that made Manley more manly than Manly. I don’t know. Anyway, Norman Manley got that extra letter passed down to him from his ancestors. His Manly grandfather arrived from Yorkshire and married a freed slave. His roots in Jamaica went way back.
Norman Washington Manley earned his accolades. He served at the forefront of labor and unionization movements starting in the 1930’s. He later led negotiations that resulted in Jamaica’s independence from Britain. Jamaica conferred upon him the Order of National Hero. They also named their second busiest airport after him. Most tourists flew into Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay, however Manley also saw a good bit of traffic. I noticed flights to and from various cities in the U.S., the Caribbean, and even Guyana.